Bang Na Expressway

This entry is part 1 of 12 in the series Bridges

This is the first in our bridge series although a bridge is not the first thing you think of when you talk about Steel Buildings it is one of the first things you think about when you talk about Steel Structures, and although most bridges are not made mostly of steel, they almost all use a significant amount of steel, either as cables or more commonly steel used in reinforcing concrete ,with out the Steel most large structures today could not be possible, so lets start the Bridge Series with the Bang Na Expressway

Burapha Withi Expressway

 The Bang Na Expressway is a huge Conrete and Steel Bridge that streches 33.51 Miles to make it the longest Bridge in the world as of this posting.

Bangna Bangpakong Road

The Bang Na Expressway is also known as the Burapha Withi Expressway  this Bridge is located in Bankok , Thailand.

Bang Na Expressway

Althought we don’t have the exact amount of steel used on this job we do have some other info for you and pictures.

Structure Elements

Foundation of main line

Main Column

Portal Frame

D2/D3 and D6


  2. Dia800 mm (31.5")
  3. 120 mm wall thickness
  4. wo sections welded
  5. 16 piles per pier
  6. PILE CAP,
  7. 2.5 m(8.2") thickness
  8. Below the flow line


H – Shape, slender light appearance

Average height of 16 m (52.5’)


Burapha Withi Expressway portal frame


  1. Toll plazas, merging areas of the ramps
  2. Portal Frame with D2/D3 and D6 segments


  1. Two components connected by a turntable
  2. Launching girder with two main spans long
  3. Erection girder with two portal spans long

Bang Na Expressway h shaped dimensions

Bang Na Expressway under construction

Bang Na Expressway under construction

Bang Na Expressway under construction

Wembley Stadium

Today we will be take a look at Wembley Stadium a massive Concrete and Steel Building. 

Amount of steel used in the construction 25,000 short tons

Wembley Stadium

Amount of concrete used 90,000 m³

This is just in the structure of the stadium, this stadium has 90,000 seats all of which are under cover which makes this the stadium with the most seats under roof in the world.

There is 35 miles of heavy-duty power cables.

The stadium contains 2,618 toilets, more than any other venue in the world.

Inside Wembley Stadium

The stadium has a circumference of 0.6 miles

The total length of the escalators is ¼ mile

Wembley Stadium Night Shot

The 6,350 tonne roof covers an area of over (11 acres), four acres of which are movable and rise to 170 ft above the pitch.

The stadium is also the most expensive stadium ever built, roughly US$1.57 billion  at the time.

 The arch is 133 metres above the level of the external concourse.

Wembley Stadium view from Wembley Way

The rows of seating, if placed end to end, would stretch 32.31 miles.

The archway is the world’s longest unsupported roof structure.

At peak construction there were over 3,500 workers working on the stadium.

Wembley Stadium Sky View

Each of the two giant screens in new stadium is the size of 600 domestic television sets.

The Stadium opened to the public on March 17th 2007

Wembley Stadium Under Construction

It is owned by The Football Association (FA),  its primary use is for home games of the England national football team.

Modern Steel Making

With the introduction of the Bessemer process in 1858 the modern steel making era began. The Bessemer process allowed for large quantities of steel to be produced cheaply, effectively replacing wrought iron with steel, however this was just the first of many production methods used in modern steel making most were just improvements on the Bessemer process one of these was the Gilchrist-Thomas process created by Sidney Gilchrist Thomas and cousin Percy Gilchrist devised in 1876-77 this process was widely used in Europe there after.


The Gilchrist-Thomas process of manufacturing in Bessemer converters a kind of low-phosphorus steel known as Thomas steel. In the Thomas – Gilchrist process the lining used in the converter is basic rather than acidic, and it captures the acidic phosphorus oxides formed upon blowing air through molten iron. the Gilchrist-Thomas process was an improvement on the Bessemer process.

Another improvement on the Bessemer process was the Siemens-Martin process, In 1865, the french engineer Pierre-Emile Martin took out a licence from Carl Wilhelm Siemens and first applied his furnace for making steel. Their process was known as the Siemens-Martin process, and the furnace as an "open-hearth" furnace. The most appealing characteristic of the Siemens regenerative furnace is the rapid production of large quantities of basic steel, used for example to construct high-rise buildings. The usual size of furnaces is 50 to 100 tons, but for some special processes they may have a capacity of 250 or even 500 tons. The Siemens-Martin process complemented rather than replaced the Bessemer process. It is slower and thus easier to control.

Both the Gilchrist-Thomas process and Siemens-Martin process complemented, rather than replaced the original Bessemer process

Siemens-Martin Oven below

Siemens Martin Steel Oven

The Bessemer process was rendered obsolete by the Linz-Donawitz process of basic oxygen steel making developed in the 1950’s,  by 1968 most all commercial steel producers stopped using the Bessemer process and replaced it with the Linz-Donawitz process which offered better control of final chemistry. The Bessemer process was so fast (10-20 minutes for a heat) that it allowed little time for chemical analysis or adjustment of the alloying elements in the steel. Bessemer converters did not remove phosphorus efficiently from the molten steel; as low-phosphorus ores became more expensive, conversion costs increased. The process only permitted a limited amount of scrap steel to be charged, further increasing costs, especially when scrap was inexpensive. Certain grades of steel were sensitive to the nitrogen which was part of the air blast passing through the steel.

Linz Donawitz Oven below

Linz Donawitz Oven

Steel History

For the first post on this site it will not be about steel buildings, but about the history of steel it’s self.  No one really knows exactly when and where steel was first produced however some of the first steel that we know of comes from East Africa dating all the way back to 1400 BC , in the 4th century steel weapons we produced in the Iberian peninsula.  Under the Han Dynasty in china in 202 BC to 220 AD steel was created by melting together Cast Iron with Wrought Iron to make a Carbon - Intermediate - Steel.

  Steel History 1        Another type of steel was produced in India and Sri Lanka around 300 BC.  called Wootz Steel and Damascus Steel,  Wootz Steel is Characterized by a pattern of bands and or sheets of micro carbides with in a tempered martensite or pearlite matrix.  Wootz Steel was widely exported throughout the region and became famous in the Middle East,  where it became known as Damascus Steel.  Damascus Steel is a hot forged steel used in Middle Eastern Sword making around 1100 -1700 AD.  Damascus Swords were legendary for there strength and sharpness,  legend has it they could cut through rock and cut through European swords that were of lesser strength.  The formula to create Damascus Steel has been lost in history.

Before the advent of modern metal alloys cast and hot rolled to construction beam sizes, sword makers of antiquity produced steel by the handful. Melting and casting a good alloy the size of a sword was difficult. Hollywood has described a fictional event where a crusader throws down his cast sword that shattered, for a damascene sword, taking home the folded hard and soft steels, changing European sword making forever. In actuality, folding/forging was well known. But this discovery of better metallurgy happened at the beginning of the age of alchemy, and so the legend of Damascus Steel was born.  Recent studies have suggested that carbon nanotubes were included in its structure, which might explain some of its legendary qualities, though given the technology available at that time, they were produced by chance rather than by design

Steel History 2

Crucible Steel was produced around the 9th and 10th century AD. in Merv.

There is evidence that in Song China in the 11th Century production of Steel using two techniques: a "berganesque" method that produced inferior, inhomogeneous steel and a precursor to the modern Bessemer process that utilized partial de carbonization via repeated forging under a cold blast.

more on the history of steel tomorrow